The Occurrence and Distribution of Viruses Infecting Groundnut (Arachis hypogeae L.) in Kwara State of Nigeria


Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin – Nigeria

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A field survey was conducted on farms in twenty-two (22) locations in the guinea savannah agroecology of Kwara state, Nigeria. Virus disease incidence was estimated on each field by assessing fifty (50) plants for virus symptoms. Virus severity was scored on a scale of 1- 6 on the extent of leaf damage and percentage number of leaves showing symptoms of the fifty plants counted for disease incidence. The second stage of the study involved the use of Antigen-Coated Plate Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA) for presence of Groundnut Rosette Virus (GRV), Cowpea aphid borne mosaic virus (CABMV), and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on collected field samples. The field survey indicated that virus incidence ranged from 5% – 65% with the highest value in Oke-Ose and Batakipan respectively. The severity fluctuated between mild mosaic mottling and necrosis on few leaves and branches of the plants to severe mosaic/ puckering/mottling/yellowing/necrosis symptoms on entire plants. The serology trial revealed presence of the 3 tested viruses in 100% of locations in the study area. The viruses were found occurring either singly or in mixtures of two or three on the groundnut samples; although CMV was the most prominent with detection in all samples. This pioneer study, revealed the intense occurrence and sporadic distribution of plant viruses on groundnut in Kwara State of Nigeria. The information obtained is germane in the design of effective management to mitigate the undesirable effect of virus infection on the crop.

Keywords: food security, incidence, legume, plant pathology, serology, severity