Intermedica Center Laboratory
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Autoimmune diseases have a high prevalence in the population, and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is the most common organ specific auto immune disorder resulting in the dysfunction of the thyroid gland (hypo or hyperfunction) .The clinical diagnosis of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) is usually confirmed by detection of various antibodies in the patient’s blood or by histopathological evaluation.In this study, I evaluated the prevalence of serum antibodies and assessed the correlation between antibodies and thyroid dysfunction. Included in this study were 410 patients, them underwent testing for thyroid function and thyroid antibodies. 304 were females and 106 were males, the age of them ranged from 20-65 years.Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO Ab) tested positive in 83.4% of patients and negative in 16.5% . Antithyroglobulinantibody (ATG Ab) estimation was positive in 57.5% patients and negative in 42.5%. By thyroidfunction testing and serum antibody evaluation , of the 342 TPO- positive patients , 63.4% were hypothyroid, 9 % were hyperthyroid and 27.4 % euthyroid. In 236 ATG Ab – positive patients, 57.6% were hypothyroid, 6.7% were hyperthyroid and 33.1% were euthyroid. But in the 174 ATG Ab-negative patients, 58.6% were hypothyroid. However, 62.6% of patients who were negative for antithyroglobulin antibodies were hypothyroid. It should be noted that only one subject who was negative for thyroid peroxidase was hypothyroid.
This shows that thyroid peroxidase antibodies are more sensitive than antithyroglobulin antibodies in predicting hypothyroidism. Similarly, thyroid peroxidase antibodies were more sensitive than antithyroglobulin antibodies in autoimmune thyroiditis (99.5% vs 58.4%, p< 0.05). It is well recognized that autoimmune thyroid disease correlates with excess iodine intake.
Hypothyroidism was the most frequent thyroiddysfunction in patients with positive TPO and ATG antibodies.
Keywords: Antithyroid antibodies, antithyroglobulin antibodies, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroid peroxidase antibodies, autoimmune thyroid disease.