Multivariante analyze used for interpretation of organochlorinated pollutant levels in soil samples of Kosovo

VLORA GASHI1), ARDIAN MACI2), AUREL NURO3), ORINDA GASHI4)

1)       Institute of Agriculture and Food, Peja, Kosovo

2)       Faculty of Agriculture & Environment, Agricultural University of Tirana

3)       Tirana University, Faculty of  Natural Sciences, Chemistry Department, Tirana

4)       Faculty of Agrobisnessi at University Haxhi Zeka of Peja,Kosovo

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ABSTRAKT

Soil contamination is one of most important factors influencing the quality of agricultural products. Usage of heavy farm equipment, the land drainage, an exces­sive application of agrochemicals, emissions originating from mining, metallurgical, and chemical and coal power plants and transport, all generate a number of undesired substances (nitric and sulphur oxides, PAHs, heavy metals, pesticides), which after deposition in soil may influence crop quality. Thus, input of these contaminants into the environment should be carefully monitored. This paper presents the data obtained for organochlorinated pesticides, their residues, PCB and chlorobenzenes in the soil samples of agricultural areas. Levels of organochlorinated pesticides, PCB and chlorobenzenes contamination were evaluated in agriculture areas that are in use in soil samples. 11 soil samples were taken in agricultural areas, near Peja, Kosovo in March 2014. Representa­tive soil samples were collected from 0-30 cm top layer of the soil. In the analytical method we combined ultrasonic bath extraction and a Florisil column for samples clean-up. The analysis of the organochlorinated pesticides in soil samples was performed by gas chromatography technique using electron capture detector (GC/ECD). Optima-5 (low/mid polarity, 5% phenyl methyl siloxane 60 m x 0.33 mm x 0.25μm film) capillary column was used for isolation and determination of organochlorinated pesticides. Interpretation of data were performed using cluster analyze models. Relatively low concentrations of organochlorinated pesticides and their metabolites were found in the studied samples. Two were the main groups, DDTs and HCHs. The presence of organochlorinated pesticides residues is probably resulting of their previous uses for agricultural purposes. PCB 52 was the main congener found in soil samples (the main grup of cluster) and hexachlorobenzene was the main compound for chlorinated benzene compounds.

Keywords:Organochlorinated pesticides, PCB marker, Chlorobenzenes, Soil samples, Gas chromatography, Cluster analyze

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