1Agricultural University of Tirana, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Kodër Kamëz 1029, Tirana, Albania
2Polis University, Faculty of Urban Planning and Environmental Management (FUPEM), Department of Environment, Tirana, Albania
3University “Haxhi Zeka”, Faculty of Agriculture, Peja, Kosovo
*Corresponding author e-mail: email@example.com
Albania has a total area of 28750 km2 (2875000 ha), from which 695520 ha or 24.2% are agricultural land. There were 11373 ha vineyards or 1.63% of the total agricultural land. Albania belongs to the subtropical zone and is under the impact of a temperate Mediterranean climate. According to EU classification, Albania belongs to the zone C of vineyards cultivation, with three subzones: C III B, C III A, and CII. During the period 1970-1990, the total vineyard area increased to 20000 ha, of which 14000 ha (70%) were for wine production, and there was consolidated and developed an authentic wine production industry. During the 1990s (1990-1994), in the short term at least, has been a dramatic reduction in total vineyard area, from 20000 ha (1990) to 4300 ha (1994), and, after 2000s, was shown a slight increase to 7994 ha (2005), and to 10533 ha in 2016. In Albania (2016) was produced 205286 tons grape, by which 124436.7 tons (60.6%) were produced from vineyards and 80850 tons (39.4%) were produced from pergolas. There are some of 426 wineries with different wine production capacities, producing dry wines, sweet wine and raki for local consumption, and grape juice, brandy, and raki for export. In 2016, in Albania were produced 118744 hl wine, by which 97980 hl by small family wineries and 20764 hl by large wineries. Export of wine was 256 hl (in USA and Kosovo), while the import was 27975 hl. Wine consumption per capita was very low (146463 hl or 4.18 liters/capita), compared to EU and some regional countries, where the wine consumption per capita varies from 11.4 liters/capita (FYROM) to 43.3 liters/capita (Italy) (Spain – 24.2, Montenegro – 24.8, Serbia – 31, Greece 32.2, Austria – 36, Croatia 39 liters/capita), but it was slightly higher than Kosovo and Turkey, by 1.5 and 1.1 liters/capita, respectively. During the last 10 years, there is a tendency and an increased demand for wines produced by indigenous and local grapevine cultivars and ecotypes, such as white wine “E Bardha e Beratit”, “Shesh i Bardhë”, “Cëruja” and red wine “Kallmet”, “Shesh i Zi”, “Vlosh”, “Debinë e Zezë”, “Serin i Zi” and “Pamid”. Acoording to the National General Development Strategy of Viticulture (2007), there was planned that the total vineyard area will be about 20000 ha in 2030, followed by the improvement of grapevine variety structure and production.
Keywords: ecotype; pergolas; production; viticulture; wine.