Epidemiological case study of food allergy in a sample of Albanian population between the ages of 18 to 25

ALKERTA IBRANJI1, ENKELEDA BERBERI2, ELDA DODA2

1Mother Teresa” School of Medicine, Tirana, Albania 
2Faculty of Biotechnology and Food, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania

*Corresponding author  e-mail: alkertaibranji@gmail.com   

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Abstract:

Food allergy is an immunological response to food proteins. It is also known as food hypersensitivity. Food allergy reactions can be classified into two types: IgE mediated reaction and non-IgE allergic reaction. Diagnosis methods for food allergy are complicated because even the detection of specific IgE (sensitization) does not necessarily mean that the patient is food allergenic. Therefore it is very important to elaborate a careful medical history by the allergologist for each patients and then to continue with laboratory studies such as Skin Prick Test, detection of food specific IgE from blood serum. This study is a pilot project that was focused in the determination of food allergy prevalence in an Albanian population samples between the ages of 18-25. We have examined a sample of 231 patients from different regions of Albania. Also we have elaborated their historical background in food allergy by using a standardized questionnaire. After that the patients that self-declare food allergy were examined with Skin Prick test and with RAST test for the presence of specific IgE from a panel of food. The results obtained show that 9.9% of the patient self-declare food allergy, but only four of them have a real food allergy or 1.7%. The main types of food that cause allergic symptoms in patients that self-declare allergy are milk and eggs respectively 48% and 26%. All the data collected were analyze with statistical program SPSS 17.00. There is a correlation (R2=0.319) between self reported food allergy and the detection of specific IgE which is significant (p<0.05) at the 0.05 (95%) level (Pearson correlation, 2-tailed).

Keywords: IgE mediated reaction; self-declare food allergy; Skin prick Test; RAST test.

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