Evaluation of the content of polyphenols and flavonoids during the fermentation of white wines (cv. Pulëz and Shesh i bardhë) with and without skins


1Faculty of Biotechnology and Food, Food Research Center, Tirana, Albania. 
2Faculty of Biotechnology and Food, Department of Food Technology, Tirana, Albania

*Corresponding author  e-mail: fmeta@ubt.edu.al  

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In white wines, the flavors and bouquets are influenced by the agronomic practices and wine production techniques. In Albania, white wines are distinguished by an intense yellow to amber color and with light taste and aroma. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dynamic changes of phenolic compounds in white wines produced by fermentation with and without skins as well as evaluating the progress of extraction of flavonoids during fermentation. In this study, two varieties of autochthonous white grape, Pulëz and Shesh i bardhë were taken in consideration. For the production of wines from these two varieties, two different vinification schemes were followed (fermentation with and without skins). Prior to fermentation, the must was macerated at 5°C for 24 hours. Saccharomyces Bayanus BC commercial yeast was used for both fermentations. Every three days the phenolic compounds of wines are analyzed by spectrophotometric methods, such as the index of polyphenols, flavonoids and color parameters. The obtained results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA statistical analysis (STATISTIX 9 software). The obtained results show that the index of polyphenols, flavonoids and color parameters have a significant difference with P ≤ 0.05 Test Tukey, in fermentation with skins compared to fermentation without skins. It is also observed that the phenolic components increase proportionally with the growth of the alcohol in the must. From the results of this study, we conclude that the fermentation with skins produces wines with higher color intensity, with more flavors and aromas compared to fermentation without skins.

Keywords: White wine; fermentation; polyphenols; flavonoids.

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