Molecular diagnosis of Lumpy Skin Disease during outbreak in Albania


1Animal Health Department, Food Safety and Veterinary Institute/Aleksandër Moisiu No 82, Tirana, Albania

*Corresponding author  e-mail:        

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Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a viral disease of livestock that cause cutaneous and internal lesions, affect milk production, hide quality and in some cases cause the death of the infected animal. After an outbreak in Greece in 2015, the disease crossed borders and passed to Bulgaria, Macedonia, Serbia, Kosovo, Albania and Montenegro. In Albania the first case is registered on July 6, 2016, in the village Vlashaj, Bulqizë and after this case the disease expanded rapidly in all the country. This study was carried out to determine the situation of the LSDV outbreak in Albania. Samples analyzed with RT-PCR method consisted on swabs, skin nodules, nasal discharge and lymph nodules. The method used was adapted from Bowden et al., 2008 for the detection of all CaPV. The DNA was extracted with DNeasy Blood& Tissue Mini Kits (Qiagen) and InvitrogenPureLink® Genomic DNA according to the manufacturer’s instructions. From 3419 samples collected in Albania during the outbreak of 2016 -2017, 2053 resulted positive with the most outbreaks occurring in spring and summer. Dibra was the districts with the high number of cases of Lumpy Skin Disease. From all the samples collected the nodular skin lesions resulted with higher concentrations of the virus. Warm temperatures and related vector abundance are among the main risk factors for LSD spread. This paper describes the situation of the LSD outbreak in Albania and the confirmation of the disease in dead animals or with clinical signs by the RT- PCR method. The confirmation of the cases during the outbreak was very important for the beginning of the vaccination in cattle with the live homologous vaccine because when the vaccine is applied across the infected population the coverage is most effective in reducing LSD virus spread. Ongoing surveillance should continue as environmental persistence of the virus may lead to further outbreaks of the disease, also it is important to take long-term studies about the seasonality of potential LSD vectors.

Keywords: Lumpy skin, outbreak, livestock, RT-PCR, vaccination

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