Monitoring heavy metal pollution in Elbasan using passive and active moss


1Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Chemistry University of Elbasan,Albania

2Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Chemistry University of Tirana, Albania

3Department of Chemistry University of Vlora, Albania

*Corresponding author

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Environmental pollution is increasing day by day, posing a very serious problem for human health. A large number of pollutants, including heavy metals, are adversely affecting our environment. Heavy metals are emitted from solid fuel combustion, vehicular emission and in industrial processes. Mosses are widely used as bio-monitors. Since the mosses have not roots system, and their leaves have not protective layer, they absorb nutrients through their thin leaves, directly from the air. Accumulation of heavy metals in the leaves of the mosses, is attributed to the presence of negative charges that possess in leaves. The assessment of heavy metal pollution in the Elbasani area  was carried out in this study,  by using native mosses (passive method) and “moss bag” (active method of monitoring) bio-monitoring. Hypnum cupressiforme sp. was used in both monitoring methods. The “moss bags” were exposed for 6 months at various points in the area, while the native mosses were collected at two points in the study area. Heavy metals as Ni, Cr, Fe, Ca, Mg and Zn were analyzed in exposed and native mosses. Indigenous moss samples were analyzed with ICP / AES technique, while the exposed samples, “moss bags”, were analyzed with FAAS technique (Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg) and with GFAAS technique (Cr, Ni). The data obtained was used for calculating the contamination factor (CF). The results of CF data show that the Elbasani area is polluted by heavy metals due to industrial activity.

Keywords: bio-monitor, moss-bag, heavy metals, ICP/AES, FAAS, GFAAS.

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